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Protected Area System
 
 Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA)
The Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) contains some of the world’s highest peaks the world’s deepest valley-the Kali Gandaki River Valley. It is the Nepal’s largest protected area of 7629 sq. km. It was established in 1992. The proposed conservation area encompasses the Annapurna range in Western Nepal. It is bounded to the north by the dry alpine deserts of Mustang and Tibet (China), to the west by the Kali Gandaki River, to the east by Marsyandi Valley and to the south by valleys and foothills north of Pokhara (Sherpa et al., 1986).
 
The nearest town is Pokhara, some 30 km to the south. Access is by road from Pokhara Naudanda, and from then onwards by foot. The ACA has an entire habitats gradient from sub tropical sal forest to perennial snow harboring 22 different forest types with 1226 plant species including 55 endemics, 30 mammals and 456 birds.
Brief History
  In 1986 ACAP was implemented by NTNC in Ghandruk as a pilot project covering one VDC with area of 200 km2
  In 1990, it’s work area had expanded to 16 VDCs with an area of 1500 km2
   Officially gazetted in 1992 covering 55 VDCs with present area
 
Objectives
ACAP has three primary objectives
• To conserve the natural resources of the ACA for the benefit of the present and future generations
• To bring sustainable social and economic development to the local people
• To develop tourism in such a way that it will have a minimum negative environmental impact
 
Features
 
Some of the world’s highest peaks (Annapurna I: 8,091m, Machhapuchhere: 6,993)
• World’s deepest gorge: Kali Gandaki and one of the world's highest altitude lake Tilicho
• Most popular trekking destination (76407 in 2000)
• Two distinct climatic regions (3000mm annual rainfall in south (cis Himalayas) and <500mm annual rainfall in north (trans Himalayas) within a span of 120 km and altitude of 1000-8000m
• 22 different forest types
• A total of 1226 species of plants (1140 species in the cis Himalayas) including 38 Orchid species and 9 Rhododendron species
• 101 species of mammals including snow leopard, Musk deer, Tibetan Argali, Tibetan wolf, Tibetan fox. 474 species of birds including 38 breeding species of birds at risk in Nepal, all six Himalayan pheasants found in Nepal. 39       species of reptiles and 22 species of amphibians.
• Nepal’s Largest protected area and first conservation area with the entire habitat gradient from sub tropical sal forest to perennial snow.
• More than 100,000 inhabitants and more than 10 ethnic groups (Tibeto Burbese: Gurung, Thakali, Bhotia, Ethnic Tibetan and Magar and Indo Aryan: Brahmin, Kshetri, Kami, Damai and Sarki)
 
Climate 
 
How to get there
Annnapurna area conservation is located near Pokhara, a town easily accessible from Kathmandu by air and road .Bus or taxi services are available from Pokhara to Jomsom which is located in the northern part of Annapurna Conservation Area. Alternative route is to reach to Phedi by bus or taxi and walk 1.5 days to reach to Ghandruk via Dhampus -Landruk.Annapurna sanctuary and base camp is located at 6-7 days trek from Ghandruk. Heritage Significance.
 
Kanchenjunga Conservation Area
The Kangchenjunga Conservation Area (KCA) in the eastern Himalaya comprises some of the most stunning scenery in allof Nepal. Not only does this region host the third highest peak in the world(Mt. Kangchenjunga), but it is also a global hotspot for plant biodiversity. Botanist have identified twenty-three species of rhododendrons growing in the area. In this eastern Himalayan setting, glacial streams cut through high ridges creating remote and steep valleys where traditional farming practices are a way of life.
 
Tucked within these hidden valleys, one can encounter rich forests that support more than 250 species of birds and endangered wildlife. A few days of walking will lead you to high-elevation pastures where yaks graze languidly and colorful alpne flowers bloom. Throughout the KCA, you will encounter a medley of ethnicities that continue to practice traditional subsistence lifestyles, their cultural and religious practices adding to the area's rich cultural heritage.
 
Kanchenjunga Conservation Area is named after after Mt. Kanchenjunga (8,586m) - second highest mountain in Nepal and the third highest in the world. Kanchenjunga was designated as a conservation area in March 1998.  It covers an area of 2035 sq. km. in Taplejung district, lies in the northeast corner of Nepal.
 
Taplejung district is also renowned for high peaks (eleven peaks higher that 7,000 m) and glaciers. The conservation area with unique mountain ecosystems is envisioned as a tri-national peace park with Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) of China to the north and Sikkim, India, in the east. Sikkim already has Khangchenzonga National Park adjoining KCA whereas the extension of Qomolungma Nature Reserve in TAR, to cover the land bordering KCA, is in progress.
In April 1997, Government of Nepal declared Kanchenjunga region as a Gift to the Earth as part of WWF’s Living Planet Campaign 2000.
Features 
Climate 
How to get there
Kathmandu - Suketar by air; 
Illam - Phidim - Taplejung Bazar by bus.
 
Heritage Significance
The Kangchenjunga Conservation Area (KCA) in the eastern Himalaya comprises some of the most stunning scenery in allof Nepal. Not only does this region host the third highest peak in the world(Mt. Kangchenjunga), but it is also a global hotspot for plant biodiversity.
Botanists have identified twenty-three species of rhododendrons growing in the area. In this eastern Himalayan setting, glacial streams cut through high ridges creating remote and steep valleys where traditional farming practices are a way of life.
 
Tucked within these hidden valleys, one can encounter rich forests that support more than 250 species of birds and endangered wildlife. A few days of walking will lead you to high-elevation pastures where yaks graze languidly and colorful alpne flowers bloom. Throughout the KCA, you will encounter a medley of ethnicities that continue to practice traditional subsistence lifestyles, their cultural and religiouu spractices adding to the area's ricjh cultural heritage.
 
Vegetation
Subtropical Evergreen Forest: 800-1,200m Evergreen tree species characterized by Schima wallichii, Engelhardtia spicata and Castanopsis indica. However, much of the original forests have been converted to agriculture land. Lower Temperate Forest: 1,200-2,500m. Also known as Lower Temperate Mixed Broadleaf Forest. Home to broadlef deciduous trees repreented by Quercus, Castanopsis, Rhododenron arboreum and some members of the laurel family.
 
Trees shed their leaves in the spring as a result of drought stress. Upper Temperate Forest: 2,500-3,500m. Also called Upper Temperate Mixed Forest or Temeperate Cloud Forest. Floristic influences from both lower and higher zones. Here, deciduous oaks, maples, laurels and briches intersperse with evergreen firs, magnolias, junipers and rhododendrons. Most trees are deciduous. Trees are covered in mossses and epiphytic plants due to high moister content in this zone.
 
Daphne bholua (locally known as lokta) is harvested from these forests. Sub-alpine Zone: 3, 500-3,900m. Mostly evergreen conifers interspersed with few cold-hardy deciduos species. South-facing slopes are usually tree-less or contain pure stands of stuned rhododendrons. North-facing slopes have juniper, fir, willow, birch and rhododendrons. In Ghunsa valley, look out for extensive stands of the spectacular Himalayan larches(larix griffithiana) taht turn the hillsides a golden-yellow in the fall.
 
Alpine Zone: 3,900-4,600m. Woody vegetation in thsi zone of moist alpine scrub consists of stuned junipers, roses and rhododendron, gentian and saxifrange abound. Hardy alpine grasses include Carex, Juncus and Poa. Look out for herds of blue sheep foraging on hillsides above treeline. Perhaps, you may see signs of snow leopard that preys on these sheep.
 
Manaslu Conservation Area
Manaslu was declared a “Conservation Area”in December 1998 by GON Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation under the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act of Nepal. It covers an area of 1663 sq. km. The region harbors a mosaic of habitats for 33 species of mammals, 110 species of birds, 11 species of butterflies and 3 species of reptiles. There are approx 2000 species of plants, 11 types of forests and over 50 species on useful plants. The bio-climatic zones vary from sub-tropical to Nival. The altitude rises from a mere 600m. to the summit of Mt. Manaslu (8,163), the eighth highest peak in the world.
 
Features 
 
Climate
The Manalsu region region from Arughat to Larkhe La (Pass), has six climatic zones : tropical, subtropical ,temperate,subalphine,alphine and arctic.The extreme climatic contrasts within the 100 km trail between Arughatand Samdo are associated with tremendous differences in elevation ,topography and precipitation. The tropical climatezone lies in the low level river basins of the Buri Gandaki ,Maryangdi and other rivers,lowland valleys and lower hills below the elevation of 1000 m.A subtropicl climatic zone exists between 1000m and 2000m where the average summer and winter temperature range between 31 to 34oC and 8 to 13oC respectively.
 
The temperature climatic zone lies at higher hils above 2000 m and below 3000m.In this zone ,summer temperatures range 22 to 25oC , and winter temperatures range -2 to 6oC.Frosts and snowfall are common during winter(January and February ).The subalphine climatic zone lies between 3000 m and 4000 m where snowfall occurs for about fou to six months ( December to May ).In this zone ,winter is very cold and even in summer the temperature is not high with a mean annual temperature of 6 to 10oC .The alphine zone between 4000 and 5000 m is mostly open meadows. The arctic climatic zone lies at elevations above 4500m.
 
The snow line is at about 5000 m .Precipitaiton is in the form of snow and the temperatures drop far below freezing. The monsoon occurs between June and September providing about three -fourths of the total rainfall .The post -monsoon period (October to November) and the winter months (December to February) are usually dry.The average rainfall is around 1900 mm per annum .In general ,the southern part of the region remains cloudier and wetter than the upper subalpine areas and alphine areas. 
 
How to get there
The trek starts from Gorkha, home of the legendary Gorkha soldiers, and follows the meandereing Budhi Gandaki River or the Darundi River before reaching Larke Pass(5,106 m.) and crossing over into Manang district of ACAP. 
 
Vegetation
The vegetation of the area can be divided into three main categories, based mainly on the altitude, viz. Low hill, Middle mountain and High mountain types. Each category has its own types of dominant forests and other associated species. The types of vegetation, however, tend to overlap the adjoining ones at places especially in relation to aspect and micro-climate. While thev forest types are quite distinct, the underlying as well as adjoining flora in different forest types do not vary so sharply.
Ti sis especially true in cases of many NTFPs including medicinal herbs and romatic plants, many of which have a large encountered in different forests types and adjoining vegetation. The presence of 19 types of forests and other forms of dominant vegetation have been recorded from the area.
 
Blackbuck Conservation Area
Government of Nepal has declared Blackbuck Conservation Area in Bardia district covering an area of 15.95 sq. km. This is the first organized effort to conserve the already endangered Blackbuck (Antelope cervicapra cervicapra). Blackbuck is one of the protected species under National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act 1973 and enlisted as endangered and listed under Appendix II of CITES. This population is the last northern most population in the world. Blackbuck is primarily a grazer and prefers flat to slightly undulating terrain. The population in Khairapur was gone down to 9 in 1975 and due to persistent conservation efforts the population reached up to 177 in 1990. Then again the population has declined gradually due to habitat loss and degradation and biotic interferences. Now the population of Black buck in Khairapur Conservation Area is 213. To protect the species, a guard post was established on site in 1975. Blackbuck conservation action plan was prepared in 2007 and awaited approval.
 
Facts
Declared date     : March 6, 2009 (2065/11/23)
Area              : 16.95 sq. km.
District          : Bardia
Municipality      : Gulariya
 
Gaurishankar Conservation Area
Area 2179 sq. km.
District 3  - Ramechhap, Dolakha, Sindhupalchwok
VDCs - Chuchure and Gumdel of Ramechhap, 
14  - Syama, Suri, Chankhu, Marbu, Khare, Orang, Bulung, Laduk, Chilamkha, Alampu, Bigu, Kalinchok, Lambagar and Gaurishankar of Dolakha 
- Ghorthali, Maming, Listikot, Tatopani, Fulkimpatti and Gumba of Sindhupalchok district
Location Sagarmatha NP and BZ in the east and Langtang NP and BZ in the west, TAR of China in the north
Headquarter Charikot
Unit office Chaku, Shivalaya, Thandanda and sub unit office at Gongar
 
Api Nampa Conservation Area
Area 1903 square kilometer
District Darchula
VDCs 21 VDCs of Darchula District (Byas, Rapla, Ghusa, Khandeswori, Sunsera, Aairkot, Shitola, Guljar, Hikila, Dhaulakot, Piperchauri, Huti, Tapoban, Brahmadev, Dhari, Chapari, Katai, Simti, Sheri and Latinath
Settlements 276
Location Between 29° 30' to 30° 15' North Latitude and 80° 22' to 81° 09' East Longitude
Altitude 518m to 7132 m. Api Himal.
Boundary District boundary of Bajhang in the East, International boundary of Mahaklai river in the west, International boundary with Tibet Autonomous Region of China in the North and Laku river and Naugadh river in the west.
Households 8966 households, 54358 population
Initiation Government of Nepal has made a decision on 2063.10.15 (2007.1.29) to conduct a feasibility study.
Land use forest 30%, grazing land 23%, barren land 23%, Shrub land 6%, cultivated land 5%, snow gracier 2%, rocks 2%, other 10%
Vegetation Subtropical forests (Hill Sal forest), Temperate forests (fir, Hemlock, Oak, Junipers), Lower and upper sub alpine forest (pine, oak, rhododendron), Lower and upper alpine (Juniper, rhododendron grazing and srub land)
Wildlife Snow leopard, musk deer and clouded leopard, Goral, Himalayan Black bear, Himalayan Tahr etc
Avifauna Danphe (Lophophorus impejanus), Munal (Satyr Traagopan), Snow Cock, Blood pheasant, Red billed chough, and Yellow-billed chough etc
Endangered plants Jatamansi, Yarshagomba, Panchaule, Kutki, Sugandhwal, Talis patra, Lauth Salla etc
Community Forests 99, Area: 1564 ha, Households benefitted: 8095, Population benefitted: 51839
NTFPs 38 species in trade, important ones are Ritha, Dalchini, Pakhanved and Kauloko Bokra
Local initiatives A consultation meeting was held in Darchula districts on 2063.12.11 in the chairmanship of Chief District Officer Mr.Yagya Raj Bohara and among the local participants, representatives were participated from the political parties, Village Development Committees' Secretary, government line agencies, NGOs and other stakeholders.
Major mountains Api (7132m.), Byans (6670m.), Guransh (6644), Lipu Lek (5,000m.) and Nampa (6757m)
Dominant ethnic groups Bhote, Kami, Damai Sarki. Brahmin and Chhettri
Sources of energy 99.4% fuelwood
Literacy rate 40%
Schools 121, 91 Primary schools 18 Lower secondary school, 10 High schools and 2 higher secondary schools
Organization and structure CAM Council with Ghusa, Huti, Septi, Rapla Units
Probable headquarter Ralpa
 
 
 
Shey-Phoksundo National Park
Shey-phoksundo National Park is situated in the Trans-Himalayan region of northwest Nepal. It is Nepal’s largest National Park covering an area of 3,555 km2. It was established in 1984 to preserve a unique Trans-Himalayan ecosystem with a diversity of flora and fauna. The Park’s climatic differences, altitude variations, and different zoo-geographical regions support a diverse range of biotic systems. In 1998, an area of 1349 km2 surrounding the park was declared as buffer zone, which consists of forests and private lands. The buffer zone is jointly managed by the park and local communities. Together they initiate community development activities and manage the natural and cultural resources.
Features
Shey Phoksundo National Park provides a diversity of spectacular landscapes. Elevations in the park range from 2,130m in Ankhe to 6,883m at the summit of Kanjiroba Himal. Much of the park lies north of the Himalayan crest. Nepal’s deepest and second largest lake, Phoksundo Lake, lies in upper regions of Suligad. Near the lake’s outlet is the country’s highest waterfall. The major rivers in the park are the Khung, Nmajung and Panjang, The Suligad and Jugdual Rivers, which are the major tributaries of the Thuli Bheri River; and the Langu Rilver, which drains the high dolpo plateau to the east and flows westward. Phoksundo Lake is famous for its magnificent turquoise color and te spectacular scenery clearly rank it with the most scenic mountain parks in the world. Ringmo village, a typical Tibetan village, is scenically nestled in the area. Many beautiful glaciers can be found near and above the lake area. The Park contain many Gompas (Monasteries) and religious area. The most famous, Shey Gompa was established in the 11th Century. Thashung Gompa located near Phoksundo Lake was built about 900 years ago to conserve wildlife.
 
Climate
As a result of its spanning both the northern and southern aspects of the Himalayan crest, the park experience a wide climatic range. Most of the precipitation in the area occurs during the monsoon (July-September), although the Dhaulagari and Kanjiroba Ranges from a massive barrier preventing most of the rain from reaching the Trans-Himalayan area. The park contains the transition form a monsoon dominated climate with 1500 mm.of annual precipitation in the south (Suligad) to an arid climate with less than 500 mm. a year in the northern slopes. Winters are quite severe, with frequent snowfalls above 2,500m. and temperature’s remaining below freezing above 3,000m. through much of the winter.
 
Flora & Fauna
The flora found within the park is exteremely diverse. The northern regions contain barren areas of the upper Himalayas and the Trans-Himalayan slope lands consisting of some rhododendron, caragana shrubs, and Salix, Juniper, white Himalayan birch, and the occasional silver fir dominate the high meadows of the Himalayas. Less than five percent of the park is forested, with much of it lying in the southern portion. The Suligad Vally’s flora consists of blue pine, spruce, hemlock, cedar, silver fir, poplar, rhododendron, and bamboo. The park also contains 286 species of ethnobotanical importance. The park provides important habitat for endangered species including the snow leopard, grey wolf, musk deer, and blue sheep, goral, great Tibetan sheep, Himalayan tahr, leopard, jackal, and Himalayan black bear are also found in the park. The park is home to six reptiles and 29 species of butterfly, including the highest flying butterfly in the world, Paralasa nepalaica. The park provides habitat for over 200 species of birds, among which include yellow-throated marten, Tibetan partridge, wood snip, white-throated tit, wood accentor, and crimson-eared rosefinchl.
 
Facilities
Local accommodations are available in Dunai, Sangta, Chhepka, and Ringmo. Campsites with rubbish pits, toilets, and shelters are available throughout the park. Trekking lodges are located in Dunai, Chhepka, and Ringmo and provide food and limited supplies. Park offices are located at Suligad, Chhepka, Palam Ringmo, and Toijem, At the headquarters in Palam there is a small visitor center.
How to get there
The easiest way to reach the park is by air from Nepalgunj to the Juphal airstrip in Dolpa followed by a half day walk to the park entrance at Suligad.
 
Culture
The park is home to more than 9,000 people and their villages area among the highest settlements on Earth. Most of the inhabitants of the park practice Bon Buddhism, an ancient religion with roots in Animism and Buddhism. The Bon-po religion, which forms the entire cultural base for Tibetan Buddhism, was founded 18,000 years ago, during the Zhang Zung Empire of today's western Tibet. The landscape is dotted with sacred monasteries, thangka paintings, and chortens. he local community is heavily dependent on trade with Tibet and agriculture. This area is also famous for its salt trade caravans.
 
Trekking
Individual trekking is permitted to trek to Ringmo or Phoksundo Lake. The Tran-Himalayan region of inner Dolpa is restricted to group trekking only, A group trekking permit is needed and can be arranged through any recognized trekking agency of Nepal.
 
Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park
Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park is spread over an area of 1,148 sq, km in 1976, of the Himalayan ecological zone in the Khumbu region of Nepal. The Park includes the upper catchments areas of the Dudhkoshi and Bhotehoshi Rivers and is largely composed of rugged terrain and gorges of the high Himalayas, ranging from 2,845m at Monjo to the top of the world's highest Himal - Sagarmatha at 8,848m above the sea level. Other peaks above 6,000m are Lhotse, Cho Oyu, Thamserku. Nuptse, Amadablam and Pumori, The famed Sherpa people, whose lives are interwoven with the teachings of Buddhism, live in the region. The renowned Tengboche and other monasteries are common gathering places to celebrate religious festivals such as Dumje and Mane Rumdu. In addition to Tengboche, Thame, Khumjung and Pangboche are some other famous monasteries. For its superlative natural characteristics, UNESCO listed SNP as a World Heritage Site in 1979.
 
Features
 
Climate
 
Flora and Fauna
The vegetation found at the lower altitude of the park include pine and hemlock forests, while fir, juniper, birch and rhododendron, scrub and alpine plant communities are common at the higher altitude. The park is home to the red panda, snow leopard, musk deer, Himalayan tahr, marten, Himalayan mouse hare (pika) and over 118 species of bird including the Impeyan pheasant, snow cock, blood pheasant, red billed cough etc.
 
Facilities
 
How to Get There
The most common ways to reach the park from Kathmandu are: - Flight to Lukia and two day's walk - Bus to Jiri and 10 day's walk - Flight to Tumlingtar and 10 day's walk - Flignt to Phaplu and 5 day's walk
Buffer Zone.
 
Government of Nepal has declared a buffer zone in and around the park in 2002 with the objective of reducing biotic pressure in the slow growing vegetation. The government has also made a provision of plowing back 30 - 50 percent the revenue earned by the park to community development activities in the buffers zone. In collaboration with local people it aims to conserve biodiversity in the region. Popular Trekking Routes The trek from Namche to Kala Pathar is very popular. The Gokyo Lake and Chukung valleys also provide spectacular views. The Thame Valley is popular for Sherpa culture while Phortse is famous for wildlife viewing. There are some high passes worth crossing over. However, the trekkers must have a guide and proper equipment for the trek.
 
Rara National Park
Rara National Park is located in the North-Westem high mountains of Nepal. The park was gazetted in 1976 to conserve the unique beauty of Lake Rara, and to protect the representative flora and fauna of the Humla-Jumla region. The park is Nepal's smallest protected area, comprising an area of 106 sq. km. There were two villages Rara and Chhapru within the park. The residents of the two villages were resettled in Banke district, outside the park.
 
Features
Rara Lake (Mahendra Tal), situated at an elevation of 2990 m. is the main feature of the park. The lake is oval shaped with an east-west axis, and has a maximum length of 5 km and a width of 3 km. Surrounded by magnificent conifer forests, it is Nepal's biggest lake (10.8 sq . km) with a depth of 167 m. Its radiant blue waters is home to the snow trout (Schizothorax oreinus sinuatus), the only fish recorded in the lake. During winter, bird lovers can enjoy many migratory birds. In summer, Himalayan flowers surround the lake creating a colorful landscape. The elevation of the park ranges from 2800 m to 4039 m. Chuchemara peak (4039 m) is the highest point in the park. Located on the southern side of the lake, it provides an excellent backdrop to Lake Rara. The snowcapped summits of Ruma Kand (3731m) and Malika Kand (3444m) located on the northern side of the lake, provide beautiful views of the lake to the south, and the beautiful Mugu-Kamali River valley to the north. MurmaPeak also provides and excellent view of the park area. The lake drains to Mugu-Kamali River via Nijar Khola. The majority of the vegetation in the park is dominated by blue pine. Interspersed amongst the pines, are found several species of rhododendrons.Blue pine, herbs, marshlands, and tussock grasslands inhabit the area surrounding the lake. In the Nisa khola Valley pine and spruce give way to mixed woodland containing walnuts and Himalayan popular. Rhododendron, fir, oak, and birch species can be found in the sub alpine region.
 
Climate
Summer is pleasant. However, winter is quite cold. The best time of year to visit the park is September/October and April to May. December through March, the temperatures drops to below freezing, and heavy snowfalls occur up to one meter, closing high passes. April to June is warm but the season gives way to monsoon season-June to August.
 
Flora and Fauna
The reserve is characterized by , sub-alpine and high temperate vegetation. Common plant species include fir, pine, and birch, rhododendron, hemlock, oak, juniper and spruce. The park is home to around 20 different species of mammals. They include Musk deer, Himalayan black bear, Leopard, Jackal, Himalayan tahr, Yellow throated marten, Otter, Wild dog. Common langur. Rhesus macaque and Red panda. The park has recorded 214 species of birds. Some of the important species include coots, snow cock, and different species of pheasants, grebes, mallard, common teal, red-crested pochard and gulls. During winter, many migratory birds join the residential Gallinaceous birds.
 
Facilities
It is advisable to bring a comprehensive first-aid kit since there is no health post in the area. Arrangements should be made through a trekking agency. There are no accommodations within the park. Trekkers must be self-sufficient in all means.
 
How to get there
Rara National Park is 2.5 days trek via Jumala or 10 days trek from Surkhet.
 
Makalu Barun National Park
Makalu Barun National Park and Buffer zone area (previously conservation area) was established in 1992. This park administered and managed by Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation. Government of Nepal and supported by The Mountain Institute's initiative, is an innovative conservation model that integrates protected area management and community development. A new park management approach encourages local people to become actively involved in protecting the forests and natural resources upon which their lives depend, and conserving their own rich cultural heritage. Traditional resource management systems, such as community controlled grazing and forest guardianship, are being strengthened and low technologies introduced where appropriate.
 
Features
From tropical forests along the Arun River to icy mountain summits, Nepal's Makalu-Barun National Park and Buffer zone, covering 1500 + 830 sq, km. is the only protected area on earth with an elevation gain of 8,000m. The skyline is panorama of rugged Himalayan peaks, including Mt. Makalu (8,463m) fifth highest mountain in the world and fourth highest in Nepal. Mt. Chamlang (7,319m), Mt. Baruntse (7,129m). Mera Peak (6,654m) and Nepal known as peak hill.
 
Climate
Makalu-Barun area falls in the eastern Himalayan climatic regime where monsoon starts early (June) and stays longer than in west Nepal (until late September). The climate is generally described as monsoon type, where more than 70% of the precipitation occurs between June and September. Pre monsoon rain is common during the month of April and May, an important factor in biomes production. No reliable records of climatic data represent the entire area- Great variations in temperature and precipitation can be expected due to extreme difference in altitude, slope and aspect within the area.
 
Flora and Fauna
Recognized for its tremendous diversity of plants, animals and people, the area contains 25 species of rhododendron, 47 types of orchids, and 56 rare plants. Snow leopard, red panda, musk deer, wild boar, and they are among the wildlife found here.
 
Park facilities
Tha Makalu-Barun National park and Buffer zone headquarter is located at Murmidanda. Seduwa. A kerosene depot at Makalu Tourism Association as well as private lodgers in Tashingaou sales kerosene to all trekking groups including the porters. Makalu Tourism Association rent kerosene stoves and blankets for porters. The trekking group has to provide the facilities to the porters. There are four shelters built for the use of porters while they are inside the park. Neither the staff nor the porters should make fire inside the shelter as it is only for sleeping purpose.
How to get there
There is daily flights to Tumlingtar from Kathmandu and Biratnagar to Tumlingtar could also be reached from Biratnagar/Dharan. It is a 6/7hrs drive to Hile and 3 day trek to Tumlingtar from there. You can also reach Inkhu valley of Makalu Barun from Lukia and Phalpu. There is regular flight from Kathmandu to Tumlingtar.
 
Trail safety
Most trails are quite rocky, and become slippery after rain or overnight freezes. Until April or May, winter snows generally stay on the passes and on high altitude trails approaching shershong. One particular hazardous area is the trail between Mumbuk and Yangle Kharka, an area of unstable and dangerous Rock fall. Trekkers in this area should move quickly and watch for falling rocks. Mountain sickness can also be a serious risk if elevation gains are rapid without proper acclimatisation.
 
Camping regulations
Campsites have been designated along the trek route. The purpose of this designation of campsite is to regulate the impact on vegetation, aesthetic, landscapes damage and waste management etc. Seven campsites have been designated in ( Khongma 3500 m, Dobato 3500m, Yangle 3570m, Neghe 3700m, Langmale 4100m, Shershong 4600m) for tourist .
 
Langtang National Park
Langtang National Park was established in 1976 to conserve the unique flora and fauna of the region. It is the nearest national park of the capital Kathmandu in the Central Himalayan Region. The 1710 sq. km. of the park extends over parts of Nuwakot, Rasuwa, and Sindhupalchok districts in the southern mountainous terrain of the Nepal-China (Tibet) border. In 1998 an areas of 420 km2 in and around the park declare as a buffer zone. The park represents a meeting point between indo-Malayan and Palearctic realms, and holds a rich biodiversity. Buffer zone management is a joint venture between the park office and the local communities. Local communities have a decision-making role in the management of such areas. Additionally, the local communities or the BZ receive 30 to 50 % of the park revenue for the better management of natural resources to ensure a sustainable supply of resources and community development
 
Features
 
Climate
September through May offers a variety of natural splendors, from lush temperate river valleys with screeching langur to spectacular old growth forest and glacial-craved cliffs rimmed by snow-covered peaks. The weather is also relatively dry except January-February when one may come across snow.Autumn is the best time to visit the Park. By April bursts of red, pink, and while rhododendrons stretch into towering canopies of fir and oak forests. Advent of warm weather makes the Yak and Chauri herds ascend to higher elevation, making occasional camps in the pasturelands, to follow years of tradition. From June to august, skies are heavy with monsoon rains. During August, a lively festival at Gosaikunda Lake attracts thousands of Hindu pilgrims and September witnesses’ spectacular display of wild flowers, while livestock herds, once again, return to lower pastures
 
Flora and Fauna
Sub-tropical vegetation characterized by Sal (Shorea robusta) forest in the southern section of the park is gradually taken over by hill forest (2000-2600m) consisting of Chirpine, Rhododendron, and Nepalese alder. The temperate zone (2600-3000m) is covered mainly by oak forest fading to old growth forest of silver fir, hemlock, and larch in the lower sub-alpine zone (3000-3600m). The Nepalese larch (larixnepalensis), the only deciduous conifer in the region, is found in this park and few places elsewhere. Throughout these zones different species of Rhododendron such as R. arboretum, R. barbatum, R. campanulatum, and R. lepidotum (scrubs) to name a few, form a colorful under story. Tree species such as birch, silver fir, Sorbus microphyla and twisted Rhododendroncampanulatum are found near the tree line. It is here at 4000m Juniper and Rhododendron shrubs (R. anthopogon) slowly dissolve into expansive alpine grassland meadows. Langtang's expansive high meadows provide summer habitat for numerous ungulate species such as musk deer and Himalayan tahr. The park is also well known for its populations of red panda, Himalayan black bear, snow leopard, wild dog, ghoral, serow and more than 250 species of birds.
 
Facilities
 
How to get there
 
Places of interest
Three main trek routes; 1) Langtang Valley, 2) Helambu and 3) Gosaikunda Lake cover much of the Langtang National park and the southern Helambu region. Langtang and Helambu regions are connected through Lauribina La. All routes have the facilities of locally operated hotel/lodge, teahouse, and campgrounds for groups. The park offers a choice of moderate to more difficult hiking with duration ranging from 3 days to 3 weeks. Lodges operate year round except during the peak winter when the trails are blocked. Trekkers who take extra time to explore trailside wilderness (e.g. near Ghora Tabela and Kyanjin) hill top view point (Kyanjin), and cultural sites (notably in Langtang village and Melamchighyang. Tarkeghayang and Shemathang) will be well rewarded. One has to be self sustaining to venture remote areas of the Park such as Panch Pokhari (five lakes), east of Helambu, the toe of Langshisa glacier, and upper level valley from Kyanjin: and over the challenging Ganja La pass in upper Langtang Valley.
 
Acclimatization and Safety
High altitude Sickness (HAS) can be life threatening if elevation is gained too rapidly without proper acclimatization. Medical doctors advise against ascending more than 400m a day once above 3000m elevations. Alternatively, one can spend an extra night at 3000m and 3500m before ascending higher. Over exertion and dehydration contribute to HAS. Drink at least 3-4 litters of water everyday besides tea and coffee which act as diuretics. Watch the health of your companions and porters. Symptoms of HAS are headache, dizziness, trouble in breathing and sleeping, loss of appetite, nausea and general fatigue. If someone develops HAS symptoms, take the person to lower elevation immediately. The Langtang-Helambu trails are rocky and slippery after rain or frost. Watch out for falling rocks while crossing landslides but do not stop. Never hike alone. Hiring local guides is strongly recommended on Ganja La (5120m) trek and on Lauribina La (4600m) during winter. Carrying acomprehensive first-aid kit is advisable as there are no medical facilities out of Dhunche. Telephone facilities are available at Singh Gompa and at major settlements in Helambu.
 
Langtang Valley Trek (Dhunche-Kyanjin)
Starting Point Destination Hours Altitudes
Kathmandu (car/bus)Dunche 6 1960m
Kathmandu (car/bus)Syafrubensi 7 1420m
Dhunche Thulo Syafru 4-5 2120m
Thulo Syafru Bamboo 3-4 1975m
Syafrubensi Bamboo 4-5 1975m
Bamboo Lama Hotel 3-4 2840m
Lama Hotel Ghora Tabela 3-4 3000m
Ghora Tabela Langtang         3-4 3420m
Langtang                 Kyanjin 2-3 3900m
 
Dunche to Helambu via Gosainkunda
Sundarijal  Pati Bhanjyang  5-6  1770m
Pati Bhanjyang  Kutumsang  4-5  2470m
Kutumsang  Tharepati  3-4  3630m
 
Khaptad National Park
Khaptad National Park is located in the Far-western region of Nepal. The park was gazetted in 1984 covering an area of 225 sq. km. The area of buffer zone is 216 sq.km. The park is the only mid-mountain national park in western Nepal, representing a unique and important ecosystem. The late Khaptad Swami moved to the area in 1940's to meditate and worship. He spent about 50 years as a hermit and became a renowned spiritual saint.
 
Features
The park offers a challenging yet rewarding experience unlike any other protected area in Nepal.. The Khaptad Baba Ashram is located near the park headquarters. The Tribeni confluence made by three rivers, and a Shiva temple are on the way to Park Headquarters. Ganga Dashahara is celebrated here during Jestha Purnima and many pilgrims visit the park during the festival. Sahashra Linga is another religious site situated at 3,200 m above sea level which is the highest point in the park. Other religious places include Ganesh temple, Nagdhunga and Kedardhunga. These areas are considered as places for meditation and tranquillity and should not be disturbed. Tobacco products, alcohol, and sacrificing of animals are prohibited in these areas. There is a small museum and a view tower at the park headquarters. To the north one can see the Saipal Himalayan Ranges- In the other direction the vast green mid-hills of Nepal can be seen clearly. There are 22 open patches of Patans (pastureland) mix together with the forests inside park. The local people graze their livestock in the Patans during the summer season. In the north-eastern part of the park, there is a lake called Khaptad Daha. During the full moon of August - September a festival is called Purnima celebrated here.
Climate
The seasons of spring (March-May) and autumn (October-November) are the best times to visit the park. The temperature ranges from 10°c to 20°c offering pleasant trekking weather. The monsoon begins in June and last until September during this time paths become muddy and slippery. From December to February winter brings snow and chilling winds.
 
Flora & Fauna
The flora of the park can be divided into three basic vegetation zone's-subtropical, and temperate. In the lower altitudes (1000 - 2000 m), subtropical vegetation dominates the landscape; Forest mainly consists of Montane Sal, Pines and Alder species. From 1800 - 3000 m temperate type dominates the landscape. The forest there are comprised of lower temperate mixed broad-leaved species (Lindera nacusua, Cmnamomum tamca. etc), temperate mixed evergreen species (Spruce, fir, hemlock, oak. etc), and upper temperate broad-leaved species (Aesculus indica, maple, etc.) Fir oak, birch, and rhododendron arc the major species found there. Intertwined into the landscape of the Khaptad plateau are the Patans (pastureland) with beautiful flowers (about 135 species) that bloom in the summer and late spring. The grassland flowers consist of primulas, buttercups, and wild berries. A wide variety of medicinal herbs (about 224 species) are occurr inside the park The park is reported to have 266 birds species with migratory birds joining the residential ones. It supports about 175 breeding birds’ species. Some of the common ones are the Impeyan, pheasant (Dhanphe), Nepal's national bird, and many types of partridges, flycatchers, bulbuls, cuckoos, and eagles. A wide variety of butterflies, moths, and insects are also forming a part of the Khaptad ecosystem. The park provides habitat for some 20 different, species of mamals. Common ones include barking deer, wild boar, goral, Himalayan black bear, Yellow-throated Marten, and Rhesus and Langur monkey. Other includes leopard, wild dogs, jackal and musk deer.
 
Facilities
Currently there are no lodges or hotels in the park. Trekkers must be self- sufficient in tents, food, fuel and all other supplies. Make sure to bring a first-aid kit because there are no medical facilities available within the park.
 
How to get there
The best way to reach the park area is to fly from Nepalgunj to Dipayal and the local buses are available for Silgadhi, Doti. From Silgadhi Bazzar one has to hike 6 hours to the park entrance and another 7-8 hours to the Park Headquarters. Other options are-flight to Dipayal followed by a three-day walk, or flight to Achham or Bajhang followed by a two-day walk, or flight to Bajura followed by a four-day walk. However, Dipayal and Accham airport are rarely open.
 
Chitwan National Park
Chitwan National Park The park is situated in south central Nepal, covering 932 km2in the subtropical lowlands of the inner Terai. The area comprising the Tikauli forest-from Rapti river to the foothills of the Mahabharat-extending over an area of 175 km2 was declared Mahendra Mriga Kunj (Mahendra Deer Park) by the late King Mahendra in 1959. In 1963, the area south of Rapti River was demarcated as a rhinoceros sanctuary. The area was gazetted as the country's first national park in 1973, recognizing its unique ecosystems of international significance. UNESCO declared RCNP a World Heritage Site in 1984,In 1996 an area of 750 km2 surrounding the park was declared a buffer zone, which consists of forests and private lands including cultivated lands. The park and the local people jointly initiate community development activities and manage natural resources in the buffer zone. Government of Nepal has made provision of to provide 30-50 percent of the park revenue for community development and natural resource management in the buffer zone.
 
Features
The park consists of a diversity of ecosystems-including the Churia hills, Ox-bow lakes, and the flood plains of the Rapti, Reu and Narayani Rivers. The Churia hills rise slowly towards the east from 150 m. to more than 800 m. The western portion of the park is comprised of the lower but more rugged Someshwor hill. The park shares its eastern boundary with the Parsa Wildlife Reserve. 
 
Climate
The park has a range of climatic seasons each offering a unique experience. October through February with average temperatures of 25oc offer an enjoyable climate. From March to June temperatures can reach as high as 43oC, The hot humid days give way to the monsoon season that typically lasts from late June until September, Rivers become flooded and roads are impossible. In late January, local villagers are allowed to cut thatch grasses to meet their needs, which offers a better viewing of wildlife to visitors. September ,November , February and April, migratory birds join the residential birds and create spectacular bird watching opportunities. While the monsoon rains bring lush vegetation, most trees flower in late winter. The palash tree, known as the "flame of the forest' and silk cotton tree have spectacular crimson flowers that can be seen from a distance. 
 
Flora & Fauna
The Chitwan valley consists of tropical and subtropical forests. Sal forests cover 70 percent of the park. Sal leaves are used locally for plates in festivals and religious offerings. Grasslands cover 20 percent of the park. There are more than 50 different types of grasses, including the elephant grass (Saccharum spp ), renowned for its immense height. It can grow up to 8m in height. The park is home to more than 50 mammal species, over 525 birds, and 55 amphibians and reptiles. The endangered fauna found in the park are: One-horned rhinoceros, Gaur. Royal Bengal tiger. Wild elephant, Fourhorned antelope, Pangolin, Golden monitor lizard, Python, etc. Bengal florican. Lesser florican, Giant hornbill, Black stork, While stork, etc. 
 
Facilities
The display at the visitor centre at Sauraha provides fascinating information on wildlife and conservation program. The women's user groups' souvenir shop offers a variety of handicrafts and other local products for gifts and souvenirs. Elephant safari provides opportunity to get a closer view of the endangered one-horned rhinoceros. One may also get a glimpse of the elusive Bengal tiger. The Elephant Breeding Center at Khorsor, Sauraha gives you information on captive elephant and the calves born there. The museum at Kasara, the park headquarters, has informative displays- Near the HQ visitors can see Bikram Baba, a Hindu religious site of archival value. A short walk (1km) from the park HQ will take you to the Gharial Breeding Center, which is also home to the Marsh mugger and number of turtles. Inside the park, there are 7 resorts run by park concessionaires that can provide lodging and access to wildlife activities. Various resorts and lodges situated outside the park also offer variety of services. 
 
How to get there
Public buses, tourist coaches, and airlines service link Chitwan. There are nine entrance gates to the park 1, Kasara via Jagatpur , 2. Ghatgain via Patihani , 3. Bhimle via Maghauli, 4. Khagendra mali via Bhandara , 5. Sunachuri via Sunachuri , 6. Sauraha via Tandi (Ratna Nagar)7. Laukhani via Pragatinaggr , 8. Amaltari via Danda , 9. Kujauli via Rajahar
 
Bardia National park
Bardia National park is the largest national park in the lowland Terai covering on area of 968 sq.km. The park situated in Nepal's Western Terai was established to protect representative ecosystems and conserve tiger and its prey species. Initially, a small area was gazetted as the Karnali Wildlife Reserve in 1976. 1500 households of the Babai valley were resettled outside the park allowing the vegetation and wildlife to flourish. In 1982, it was renamed as Bardia Wildlife Reserve, and in 1984 it was extended to its current size. The reserve was given the status of a National Park in 1988. Greater One-horned Rhinoceros were translocated from Chitwan National Park in 1986, 1991, 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2002. In 1997, an area of 327 km2 surrounding the park was declared as a buffer zone, which consists of forests and private lands. The park and local communities jointly manage the buffer zone. Together they initiate community development activities and manage natural resources in the buffer zones. An elephant ride provides a different view of the park as one can go off the main trail, Morning and late afternoon is the ideal time to go on a ride. Karnali river is the suitable home for Gangetic dolphin. Babi valley is a majestic place to visit where flagship Rhino, tiger, elephant can be observed in the wilderness site.
 
Babai valley
The Babai valley extending from Parewa odar to Chepang (bridge) was included In the park in 1984. The pristine valley is characterized by rich biodiversity. The major vegetation and forest type are wooded grassland and the riverine forest. The translocated rhinoceros from Chitwan were reintroduced in this valley. The luxurious forests in the east of the park also provide a good habitat and corridor for several wildlife species. The Karnali river is home to the endangered Gharial crocodile and Marsh mugger. The blue waters also provide habitat for the endangered Gangetic dolphin. Large Mahasheer, a game fish, is considered an excellent catch. The fast flowing water also provide excellent rafting expeditions that can stop in the park. Riverine forests along with the shores of the river creating prime habitat for birds such as Herons, Egrets, Black-necked, stork, and Little pratincole. The Tharu ethnic group is native to this area. Traditionally they are subsistence farmers and practice their own tribal religious. Handicrafts made by the community members could be bought as souvenirs.
 
Features
 
Climate
The park has three distinct seasons, each providing a unique experience. Form October through early April the weather is dry. The days are warm, and the nights are cool and pleasant. From April to June the temperatures warm up, are peaking up to 450c in May. The hot sticky days give way to the monsoon rains that lasts until September.
 
Flora and Fauna
The park offers a variety of experiences in its vast undisturbed wilderness. About 70% of the forest consists of Sal trees with a mixture of grassland and riverine forests. Sal leaves are used in festival and religious offering. The park is home to endangered animals such as the Royal Bengal tiger, wild elephant, Greater one-horned rhinoceros, swamp deer, and black buck, The other endangered species include gharial-crocodile, marsh mugger and Gangetic dolphin. Endangered birds found in the park are Bengal florican, lesser florican and sarus crane, more than 30 different mammals, over 230 species of birds and several species of snakes, lizard and fish have been recorded In the park's forest, grassland and river. In addition to the resident species, several migratory birds visit the park,
 
Facilities
Museum and Tharu culture are available for visitors at HQ. The wireless radio communication facility at the park headquarters, could be used in emergency, If you are traveling by private vehicle make sure that you have ample amount of fuel. Be advised to carry a comprehensive first-aid kit including medicines for intestinal problems. There is a community health post at Thakurdwara. You can spend your nights at the lodges surrounding the pork. These lodges provide service to tourists.
 
How to get there
You can take a bus from Kathmandu to Nepalgunj or take the doily flight. From Nepalgunj bus service is available to the park HQ at Thakurdwara during the dry season,
 
Banke National Park (BaNP) was established as 10th Park on 12th of July 2010 which reflect Government’s commitment in Biodiversity conservation at the landscape level. It was also recognized as gift to the earth in 1998.
The Park is linked with transboundary Landscape that joins Suhelwa Wildlife Sanctuary in India through national and community forests towards south. It joins with Bardia National Park (BNP) towards west which further links with Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary in India via Khata corridor, national forest and community forests.
There are about 4,861 households with 35,712 populations residing in buffer zone. Indigenous Tharu community, Brahmin, Chhetri, Magar, Tamang, Majhi, and Gurung are living in the buffer zone. 90% of the economy of people depends on agriculture and rest 10% on trade and labor.
 
Objectives
• To conserve endangered species of wild flora and fauna and their habitat
• To promote eco-tourism
• To facilitate buffer zone for resources management, livelihood promotion, income generation and community development activities
• To strengthen transboundary biological corridor.
 
Climate
The Park has three distinct seasons: winter, summer and monsoon, each providing a unique experience. From October to early A p r i l , weather is dry, days are warm, and nights are cool and p l e a s a n t .
From April to June, temperature grows up to 450C in May/June. The hot humid days gives way to monsoon rains that lasts until September.
 
Facilities
There are few health posts in the buffer zone and a teaching hospital about 50 km from Park head office, thus a first aid kit including medicines to purify water is advisable. Communication facility is well established. Fuel stations are limited to highway and self arrangement is encouraged for interior visits. Hotels and lodges are available along the southern border of the Park and few other locations with basic services required for tourists.
 
How to get there
There are regular flights and tourist coaches from Kathmandu to Nepalgunj. It takes approximately an hour drive on a regular or hired bus/taxi from Nepalgunj to Park’s head office. It takes about eight hours bus ride (270 Km) from Mahendranagar and seven hours (250 Km) bus ride from Dhangadi to reach Park’s head office.
 
Part Regulations
• An entry permit is required to enter in to the Park that can be purchased at entry points with the payment of Rs 500 (foreigners), Rs 200 (SAARC), and Rs 20 (Nepalese) per person per day.
• We anticipate respect of religious and cultural heritage.
• The entry is prohibited between sun set and sun rise.
• Non bio-degradable items should be disposed in the designated places.
• Unauthorized purchase of animal or plant parts is offensive.
• Flora and fauna are fully protected and should not be disturbed.
 
Location, Area and Boundary
BaNP (550 square kilometer) lies in Banke district and its buffer zone (343 square kilometer) covers parts of Banke, Bardia, Dang and Salyan districts of Mid Western Development Region. It is located between
810 39’29” to 820 12’19” east longitude and 270 58’13” to 280 21’26” north latitude. The core area is delineated by Chisapani-Obary section of east-west highway and cultivated land in the south, the Churia ridge in the north, Shiva khola in the east and Kohalpur- Surkhet road in the west. The core area of the
Park (61.5%) entirely falls in Banke district and buffer zone (38.5%) falls in Banke district in the south and west, and Dang and Salyan districts in the north.
 
Bio-diversity and habitat
BaNP contains an array of eight ecosystem types such as Sal forest, deciduous Riverine forest, savannahs and grasslands, mixed hardwood forest, flood plain community, Bhabar and foot hills of Chure range. It is a home to 124 plants, 34 mammals, more than 300 birds, 24 reptiles, 7 amphibians and 58 fish species. 90% natural forest coverage composed of mainly Sal, Karma, Khair and Sissoo.
 
Three species of mammals (tiger, striped hyaena, four-horned antelope), four species of birds (giant hornbill, black stork, Bengal florican, and lesser florican) and two species of reptiles (gharial crocodile and python) residing in the Park are protected by the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act 1973.
The habitat of flood plain, foot hill and Churia hill are of prime concern to conserve major focus species such as royal Bengal tiger, Asiatic wild elephant and four-horned antelope. Furthermore, the Rapti River on the south and Babai River on the north forms the life line of the Park.
 
Buffer Zone
To kindle the conservation spirit in the hearts of people, BaNP has focused on participatory resource management in 14 VDCs, seven from Banke district (Khaskusum, Kanchanpur, Mahadevpuri, Kohalpur, Chisapani, Navbasta, Rajhena), three from Dang district (Goltauri, Panchkule, Purandhara), three from Salyan district (Kalimati Rampur, Kalimati Kalche, Kavrechaur) and one from Surkhet district (Belawa), in the buffer zone. The user committees and the user groups will have their own work plans and financial resources channeled through buffer zone management committee to utilize in conservation, community development, income generation, skill enhancement and conservation education program
 
Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park
Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park (159 sq km) is situated on the northern fringe of Kathmandu valley and lies about 12 km away from the center of capital city. The area was gazetted as the country's ninth national park in 2002. Prior its declaration as national park, it was managed under the Shivapuri Watershed Development Board, and was later declared as Shivapuri Watershed and Wildlife Reserve.
 
Features 
 
Climate 
 
Flora and Fauna
Shivapuri lies in a transition zone between subtropical and temperate climates. The vegetation consists of a variety of natural forest types including pine, oak, rhododendron etc, depending on altitude and aspect. Recorded wildlife in the park includes mammalian species such as Himalayan Black bear, leopard, jungle cat, and rhesus monkey. The park is also home to 177 species of birds, including at least 9 threatened species, 102 species of butterflies with a number of rare and endangered species, and 129 species of mushroom. 
Facilities 
 
How to get there 
Drive to Pani Muhan Budhanilkantha (10 km from Kathmandu)
Drive to Sundarijal (30 km from Kathmandu)
 
Water Resources
Shivapuri is one of the main sources of drinking water for Kathmandu Valley. Everyday about 30 million liters of water is tapped from rivers such as the Bagmati and the Bishnumati as well as from several other smaller streams. 
 
Places of Interest
The park is easily accessible from Kathmandu. Visitors are attracted to the park for trekking. Trekking routes to Nagarkot, Gosaikunda, Helambu and Langtang National Park also pass through the park. Several religious sites for the Hindus and the Buddhists lie inside the park.
On Nepalese New Year's Day, which falls in mid-April, pilgrims from Kathmandu valley and neighboring areas flock to Baghdwar and Bishnudwar of the park from where the sacred rivers Bagmati and Bishnumatii originate.
Visitors can have breathtaking views of the high Himalayas from the northern aspects of the park. Likewise, the panoramic views of Kathmandu valley could be seen from the southern slopes of the park, 
 
Famous Trekking Destinations within the Park
• Panimuhan, Park HQ - Shivapuri peak (12 km)
• Nagigumba - Baghdwar - Chisapani (18 km)
• Nagigumba - Shivapuri peak (6 km)
• Kakani - Shivapuri
• Jhuje - Chisapani (12 km)
• Sundarijal - Chisapani (22km)
 
Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve
Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve lies on the floodplains of the Sapta Koshi River in the south-eastern Terai. The reserve was gazetted in 1976 to preserve habitat for the only remaining population of Wild buffalo, Arna (Bubalus arnee). The 176 sq. km. reserve is Nepal's smallest wildlife reserve. The eastern and western embankments of the Sapta Koshi River define the area. In 1987, Koshi Tappu was declared a Ramsar site, a wetland of international significance. Government of Nepal has declared the buffer zone  ( 173.5 sq. km ) surrounding the reserve in 2004.
 
Features
The Sapta Koshi is one of the three main tributaries of the Ganges- Rapid and intense flooding of the reserve, occur during the rainy season. Embankments have been constructed parallel to the river to control the flooding. 
 
Climate
The reserve experiences three distinct seasons. Summer (February through May) is intensely hot with minimum precipitation. Shade temperatures can reach 40 c. The monsoon starts in late May/early June and lasts until September bringing heavy frequent rainfalls. The rainfall is greatest during July but high humidity and temperatures are experienced throughout the season. Winter (October through January) is characterized by clear skies and moderate temperature, but can still get quite cold. 
 
Flora and Fauna
The vegetation is mainly composed of tall grasslands. Local villagers are permitted to collect thatch grass once a year. These are used for roof thatching and building house walls. There are also small patches of Khair-sissoo scrub forest and deciduous mixed riverine forest.The reserve has important habitat for a variety of wildlife.
 
The last surviving population of Wild buffalo is found here. The estimated population of wild buffalo is around 159 individuals is dwindling. They are distinguished from domestic buffalo by their much bigger horns. The reserve is also home to around 20 other animal species such as Hog deer ,Wild boar , Spotted deer, Blue bull, and Rock Python.
 
Around 441 species of birds-many seen now here else in Nepal (14 endemic species)- have been recorded, including 20 duck species , 2 Ibis species, white tailed stonechat ,  Striated marsh warbler, 30 shore birds, 114 water birds, and the endangered swamp partridge and Bengal florican. The Koshi Barrage is an extremely important resting place for many migratory birds, containing 87 winter and trans-Himalayan migratory species.
 
The Koshi River is home to 80 species of fish. The endangered Gharial crocodile and Gangetic dolphin have been recorded in the river as well.
 
During winter, many of the migratory birds can be seen on the Koshi Barrage and on the river channel. Migration usually peaks around mid March. Much wildlife visits these areas during dusk and dawn. The clear skies allow for beautiful sights of several Himalayan peaks including Makalu (8463m), the world's fifth highest peak.Visitors can arrange elephant ride from Reserve Headquarters 
 
Facilities 
 
How to get there
Daily bus (Day and Night) service is available from Kathmandu to  Kakarbhitta and Biratnagar. Visitors should get off the bus at Jamuha, 4 km from Laukhi, and walk 2.5 km to the Reserve Headquarter. The road to Kusaha is marked by a signboard on the main Highway. There are also daily flights to Biratnagar, visitors flying to Biratnagar will have to take a bus and should stop at Jamuha. The Reserve Headquarters is located at Kusaha Sunsari district.
 
There are a few lodges and teashop near the Reserve Headquarter. Visitors are advised to carry first-aid kit including medicines for intestinal problems. There is a phone at the Headquarters.
 
Parsa Wildlife Reserve
Parsa Wildlife Reserve is located in the south-central lowland Terai of Nepal. The 499 km2 of pristine sub-tropical jungle makes Parsa Nepal's largest wildlife reserve. Once this area served as a vacation site for the Rana Rulers of the country. In 1984, it was gazetted as a wildlife reserve to preserve the habitat for wild Asian elephant, and a variety of other fauna- It is contiguous with Chitwan National Park in the west.
 
Features
The soil is primarily composed of gravel and conglomerates, making it susceptible to erosion. The hills present a very rugged face with numerous gullies and dry streambeds. As the foothills are very porous, water flows underground and surfaces at a distance of about 15 km. from the hills base. The Churia hill range from 750m to 950m running east to west. 
 
Climate
Winter (October-December) provide pleasant temperatures with clear skies. Nighttime temperatures can drop to 0°C. During spring (January-March) temperatures rise and water becomes scarce. During summer (April-June) the days become hot and humid with temperatures rising up to -40°C. Monsoon (July-September) brings cooling rains. 
 
Flora & Fauna
The forests are mainly composed of tropical and subtropical species. Sal forests compose about 90 percent of the reserve's vegetation. Along the banks of the rivers, riverine forests are found containing species like Khair and Silk cotton tree. In the north-eastern part of the reserve, at higher altitudes, Sal and Pine forests are occurring. On the southern slope of the Siwalik hills, the forests are dominated by pine. Sabai grass is commercially important species, grows well on the southern face of the Churia hills.
The reserve supports good populations of various endangered species include wild Asian elephant, Royal Bengal tiger, Sloth bear, and Leopard. Blue bull, Sambar, Chital, Hog deer, Barding deer, Langur, Rhesus macaques, striped hyena, Jungle cat, and Palm civet are also found in the reserve.
The reserve also provides habitat for more than 500 species of birds. For example White breasted kingfisher, Paradise flycatcher, Large racquet-tailed drongo, Golden backed woodpecker, etc are some of the common sights. Giant hornbill, one of the endangered bird species is found in some  forest patches. The reserve is also famous for reptiles and different kinds of snakes include common Cobra, Common and banded Karit, Python and King cobra. 
 
Facilities
There is a small guesthouse with four rooms at the headquarters.  There is also a teahouse that can provide tea, snacks, and Nepali food. Hetauda and Birgunj are about an hour's bus. Make sure to bring a first-aid kit containing medicines for intestinal problems.
Near the headquarters there  is a machan (view tower) that provides excellent opportunities to catch glimpses of many birds, deer and leopard. Wild elephants could be also sighted form the machans. Kailas Bhata is atop a hill, and is of religious importance. It house two small temples (Dugdeswor Mahadev) paying homage to the Hindu gods of Shiva and Parbati. Also, one can look over the lush forests of the Terai from here. An elephant camp is located near the Amlekhgunj in Bara district. Jungle rides can be arranged from the reserve headquarters, which is the best way to get a close view of the wildlife. 
 
How to get there
The reserve is easily accessible. The Kathmandu - Hetauda - Birgunj highway passes by the entrance gate. Bus can be taken from Kathmandu. It takes six to seven hours to get there. A flight to Simara takes about 20 minutes. There is a 15 minutes bus, ride to the reserve headquarter.
 
Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve
Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve was managed as a hunting reserve beginning 1969, and was gazetted as a Wildlife Reserve in 1976, covering an area of 305 sq. km. It lies in the extreme south-western section of Nepal’s Terai in Kanchanpur District. The reserve shares a common boundary with the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh in the south and west which is formed by the Mahakali (Sarda), River, and a major tributary of the Ganges. It is bordered on the eastern side by the Chaudhar River and to the north by a forest belt and cultivations. A total of 24 mammal species was recorded by Schaff (1978b), a total of 350 species of birds of which 180 are breeding species (Inskipp, 1989), Bhatt and Shrestha (1977) provide an annotated list of 14 species of fish, Schaaf (1978b) recorded 10 species of ectoparasites and biting flies.
Although the area of the Reserve is small, it supports a wide range of biodiversity which is nationally and globally important. The vegetation types primarily include sal forest, sal savanna, which is part of continuum between climax forest and grassland that is maintained by fire and floods. The reserve supports the largest population of Bengal florican Houbaropsis bengalensis (E) and swamp deer Cervus duvauceli (E).
 
Features 
 
Climate
The area has a tropical monsoon climate with four different seasons: winter , spring, summer and monsoon. The months of December and January are fairly cold and misty with occasional frost.The mean monthly minimum temperature varies from 10 to 12 o C in winter , gradually rising to 17oc in the spring and 26oCin the summer.Over 90% of the annual precipitation fall during monsoon between June and September.Mean maximum temperatures are 40-42°C in summer (April-May), when hot westerly winds of up to 160km per 4hour have been recorded. (Balson, 1976).In February and March ,the maximum temperature rises up to 22o to 25ocC.The relative humidity remains fairly high throughout the the year except in the dry months of the pre-monsoon period. 
 
Flora & Fauna  
 
Facilities 
 
How to get there
The reserve is accessible by the road as well as air. The reserve will be easily accessible by road from any parts of Nepal with the completion of the far-western sector of east-West Highway. There is once a week flight from Kathmandu to Dhangadhi which is 51 km far from the park headquarters. There is regular public bus service from Dhangadhi to Mahendranagar taking 3 hours drive and the reserve headquarters is 8 km south-west of Mahendranagar. The reserve can be reached by East-west Highway through Nepalgunj-Dhangadhi-Mahendranagar. 
 
Vegetation
Some 54.7% of the reserve is covered by mixed deciduous forest, grassland and marsh in the south-west where soils are of recent alluvium. The rest is moist deciduous forest and savanna, supported by the better drained soils on higher terrain in the north-east (Balson, 1976).
The main vegetation types distinguished by Schaaf (1978a, 1978b) are: sal Shorea robusta forest; sal savanna, which is part of a continuum between climax forest and grassland that is maintained by fire or floods; mixed deciduous forest, which is patchily distributed among the more extensive grasslands in the south-west (sal is absent); grasslands, which may be dry (locally known as phantas) or wet in the case of areas inundated during the monsoon; lowland savanna, which occurs on the fringes of all main grasslands and covers most of Karaiya Phanta; khair-sissoo forest, dominated by Acacia catechu and Dalbergia sissoo and forming an early succession in riverine areas; and marsh, in which tall dense grasses are predominant (e.g. Phragmites karka, Saccharum spontaneum and Sclerostachya fusca).
 
 
Source: http://www.dnpwc.gov.np/protected-areas.html
 
 


 
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Recommended Destinations
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Recommended Activities
Bird watching and hike in Shivapuri Nagarjung, Elephant Safari, River safari and Jeep safari in Chitwan, Trek to Everest, Langtang, Annapurna and Mustang, Scenic Mountain tour of Pokhara, Sarus Crane and Bird Watching in Lumbini the birthplace of Buddha, Sunrise and Sunset view from Nagarkot, Mountain Flight to see Mt. Everest and Himalayan Range, Tracking Wild Bengal Tigers and Wild Asian Elephants in Bardia, Mahasheer Fishing in Karnali River, White water rafting in Bhote Koshi and Trishuli River, Journey to the valley of Snow Leopards,